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Brain and nervous system :
Rabies

A zoonotic viral disease, rabies causes acute encephalitis in warm-blooded animals. The animal-human transmission takes place through contact with its saliva. The most characteristic feature of rabies is hydrophobia, or the ‘fear of water’.

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1. How do people get rabies?

People usually get get rabies from the bite of a rabid animal. It is also possible, but quite rare, that people may get rabies if infectious material from a rabid animal, such as saliva, gets directly into their eyes, nose, mouth, or a wound.

2. What must be done to prevent getting a Rabies infection?

For individuals at risk like laboratory workers, animal handlers and veterinarians, two doses of Anti-rabies vaccine should be given four weeks apart. A reinforcing dose after 12 months and every 1-3 years may be given if necessary.

3. What must I do if a dog bites me?

Wash the wound area with soap and water and leave it under running tap water at least ten minutes. Clean with antiseptic and leave wound clean and open. A tetanus toxoid injection can be taken. Five doses of Anti-rabies vaccine should be administered. The first dose on the first day and subsequent doses on days 3,7,14,28. Human rabies immunoglobulin should be injected half around the wound and the other half taken intramuscularly. However, a veternary doctor should be consulted to know the risk of getting rabies.

4. How soon after an exposure should I seek medical attention?

Medical assistance should be obtained as soon as possible after an exposure. There have been no vaccine failures in the United States (i.e., someone developed rabies) when post-exposure prophylaxis was given promptly and appropriately after an exposure.

5. Will the rabies vaccine make me sick?

Adverse reactions to rabies vaccine and immune globulin are not common. Newer vaccines in use today cause fewer adverse reactions than previously available vaccines. Mild, local reactions to the rabies vaccine, such as pain, redness, swelling, or itching at the injection site, have been reported. Rarely, symptoms such as headache, nausea, abdominal pain, muscle aches, and dizziness have been reported. Local pain and low-grade fever may follow injection of rabies immune globulin.

6. Should I receive rabies pre-exposure vaccination before travelling to other countries?

In most countries, the risk of rabies and the precautions for preventing rabies are the same as they are in the United States. However, in some developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, dog rabies may be common and preventive treatment for rabies may be difficult to obtain. If you are travelling to a rabies-endemic country, you should consult your health care provider about the possibility of receiving pre-exposure vaccination against rabies.




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